It’s another sunny Arizona day as you and your instructor lift off the Scottsdale Airport. Shortly after we are airborne, the Williams Gateway ATIS is dialed and monitored. Traffic and ATC permitting, we could proceed southeast 20 miles or so for several approaches at KIWA, beginning with an ILS approach to runway 30C. Traffic in the Phoenix area has steadily increased over the 30 plus years we’ve been in this business, so more and more frequently, we choose to fly 20 minutes or so north to Flagstaff. Much less traffic there and the student gets to experience the altitude effects of operating out of a 7000 foot altitude airport.
Regardless of which airport approaches are accomplished, airwork and a few abnormal/emergency procedures will likely be practiced en route. Steep turns, stall series, unusual attitudes, the shut down and re-light of an engine and a simulated rapid decompression are frequently accomplished by the time we are set up on our first approach, typically a coupled 2-engine ILS to a published missed approach. Several tasks in the Airline Transport Pilot and Type Rating Practical Test Standards have already been accomplished. The normal and rejected take-off, area departure and arrival, ILS, published missed approach and hold, as well as airwork and numerous emergencies are behind us. After the hold, a non-precision approach of some kind will be demonstrated without the benefit of radar vectors. We will be using our own navigation, demonstrate the procedure turn and the flaps may not work. We track the course outbound, perform the procedure turn and start inbound without flaps. The “Abnormal Landing, Flaps Inoperative” checklist is accomplished and depending on which Citation product you are training in, the required 15 to 25 knots is added to Vref. The realistic result is an increase in landing distance of 2 to 3 times book numbers. Gear comes out early for the drag, and since it is a little warm today and brake energy could be a concern, this “flaps inoperative” approach might provide a good opportunity to demonstrate the required rejected landing. So at 20 or 30 feet AGL, when a successful landing is assured, the rejected landing is performed. To add to the excitement, shortly after the engines spool up, one quits.
We are now on a “one engine inoperative” missed approach, leading into a “One Engine Inoperative" ILS. Again, the appropriate emergency checklist is consulted and the student demonstrates the single engine ILS to a full stop.
After the taxi back, new computations are performed, checklists consulted and the takeoff is briefed. The V1 cut, or engine failure after V1 is typically practiced next. This maneuver is particularly educational if it’s your first in an actual aircraft, and especially at Flagstaff’s 7000 feet altitude. We have already briefed the applicant on the importance of keeping his or her feet low on the pedals to avoid unintentionally dragging a brake, the importance of rotating slowly to the “one engine inoperative” body angle for climb out and why the right hand leaves the thrust levers at V1. Shortly after V1, one engine spools down, requiring significant rudder to hold center line and the climb out commences at a 7 to 8 degree body angle. As we accelerate to V2, we may be able to increase body angle to 10 degrees or so to maintain V2, which is set on the pilot’s airspeed indicator. After we climb through either 400 or 1500 feet AGL, depending on model, and accelerate through V2 plus 10 knots, we can safely retract the flaps without getting that sinking sensation which accompanies premature flap retraction. So far we have done absolutely nothing but fly the airplane. And we may well do nothing but fly the airplane up to 1500 feet, turbine pattern altitude, before we deal with the engine out emergency at all.
Our last approach today is a non-precision approach of some kind, terminating in a circle to land, one of the more demanding approaches to perform safely in actual Instrument conditions. After the roll out, we exit the runway and monitor ground as we taxi to parking.
If any additional training is required, it will be covered in the de-brief and accomplished in another training flight. If not, the endorsement paperwork and final review is accomplished . Tomorrow, you will likely meet with one of our examiners to demonstrate the skills you just acquired.